Voice over Internet Protocol (Voice over IP, VoIP) is one of a family of internet technology communications protocols, and a transmission technology for delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions over Internet Protocol (IP) networks. Other terms frequently encountered and often used synonymously with VoIP are IP telephony, Internet telephony, voice over broadband (VoBB), broadband telephony, and broadband phone.
Internet telephony refers to communication services—voice, fax, SMS, and/or voice-messaging applications that are transported via the Internet, rather than the public switched telephone network (PSTN). The steps involved in originating a VoIP telephone call are signaling and media channel setup, digitization of the analog voice signal, encoding, packetization, and transmission as Internet Protocol (IP) packets over a packet switched network. On the receiving side, similar steps (usually in the reverse order) such as reception of the IP packets, decoding of the packets and digital to analog conversion reproduce the original voice stream.
VoIP systems employ session control protocols to control the set up and tear down of calls, as well as audio codecs which encode speech allowing transmission over an IP network as digital audio via an audio stream. The codec used is varied between different implementations of VoIP (and often a range of codecs are used); some implementations rely on narrowband and compressed speech, while others support high fidelity stereo codecs.